Defense system: components and features
After an initial stage of construction, as a wave of Earth (castrum estivum), that was exalted after occupation of Dacia (106 (d). HR.) Legion camp XIII Gemina to known, about half a century later (end of the reign of Hadrian 138 (d). HR., the beginning of the reign of Antoninus Pius), the second phase of stone (castrum stativum), whose active existence lasted until leaving the army and provincial Roman administration (271 – 275 (d). HR.).
A summary of the procedure, dimensions or position in the land of the Fort, the announcement of the elements contained in the composition of the defence system and how their layout, plus systematization of the Interior, We reveal the importance and characteristics of grounded military camp and organized by Romanian soldiers and officers at Apulum.
Oriented in the direction East-West, quadrangular shape of the new fortifications can be found in stone walls trail, that were approximately equal sides (480 x 432 m), inner surface bounding about 20,7 HA.
The main elements that had entered into the composition of the wall are chasing the fulfilment of strict time scale from outside to inside and were made up of the following components: defensive moat, berm, the stone wall, the tide of Earth and the way of soldiers ' rond.
The Groove (Fossa).
Broad and deep, the Groove was the first obstacle outdoors, being arranged in front of the wall, at a certain distance from it, bermei width being variable. He was surprised on three of its sides and have an inverted trapezoidal shape, with different base slopes pitched straight and (Dim: 7m the canopy; 2,5 m at the base; 5-6 m depth; 5 m. width bermei).
Stone walls (murus)
The main element of the defence of the Fort wall was it composed of massive blocks of stone from the quarries of escavată Şard, Ighiu and Ampoiţa, shaped, arranged in two rows and linked with filling (emplecton).
The dimensions of the walls seem to have been impressive (7 m height; 2,10 m thick; 2,15 the depth of the Foundation). On each of its sides wall was pierced by the ample openings for access gates, take the corner towers and curtain, and to top it was equipped with battlements. Enclosure wall remained the main element of the defense system of the roman castrum, that has been partly preserved in the structures of the ancient medieval fortresses, until the late 18th century. He can also be seen on some portions of the side, from the South or in the foundations to some medieval buildings (the episcopal palace, the area of the former mints).
Towers (engineering intern)
The existence of the Defense towers at Camp Legio XIII Gemina, can be proved, in the case of towers of gate-Bad Kleinkirchheim surface located at the south gate or corner-towers through the foundations unearthed at the crossroads of the East and west sides. On the West side of the outer wall's alignment have been identified two towers of curtain wall.
East Gate (Porta praetoria) He was in correspondence with the West Gate (Porta decumana-identified in part on. Nicolae Iorga), both of which are located in the middle of the sides.
Used to facilitate linkages with the outside, the gates of the Fort were located symmetrically, one on each of the four sides.
Gates principalis -dextra and sinistra-shared the uneven areas across the camp walls of South and North, at a distance of less than (1/3), towards the eastern side. Circulated were all gates, facilitating liaison with United Civil settlement developed Apulum, more intensively in the northern areas, West and Southwest, with side roads leading to Ampellum (Zlatna), Alburnus Maior (Roşia Montană) Cash or Road respectively imperial towards Brucla (Aiud), Potaisa (Turda), Napoca (Cluj Napoca) etc..
Open and brought to light after nearly two millennia of the building, the southern gate of the Fort (Porta principalis dextra) still preserved above ground basic structures of defence towers and broad opening, with the central pillar for double entry, making possible an eventual reconstitution of its originating.
Ample openings (10 m wide), flanked by powerful towers (8,40 m x 6 m x 100.000,00) and tall, Gates was giving an appearance of monumentality, their functional role being doubled by an emblematic message, triumphant.
The tide of Earth (Agger)
It was found only on the South side, so it may have come from the first phase of construction of the Fort of Earth, a re-use of his possible second phase, to strengthen the wall of stone.
Rond road (via sagularis)
To protect soldiers and buildings of any projectiles thrown over the wall, around the wall, on the inside, keep a wide enough gap (approx. 8 m) called intervallum. Sometimes it is identified with the way guards formations of the rond or was used as a ground for exercises. At Camp Apulum, the way the soldiers witnessed two phases of construction, being arranged at different levels and with materials (lower and gravel in first phase, the more exalted and stone slabs in the second phase).
The internal organization of the Fort
Determining role in the Organization of the space inside the Cossacks, by importance and orientation, wielded communication paths.
Wider roads (8-10 m), they were doing the connection between the four parties or internal surface were divided in large areas, well-chosen, While the alleys, narrower (2-4 m), they created the necessary intervals between buildings, by facilitating the movement of troops and guard alike objectives.
Via principalis that line was going sideways camp, to achieve the link South-North direction, between the porta principalis dextra and porta principalis sinistra. Create such an area east of the Fort (praetentura), occupying 1/3 from the internal surface of the Cossacks, in order to obtain the necessary space construction representative.
Via praetoria, the two major communication artery, partially ran throughout the camp, from East to West, linking the gate of the same name (Porta praetoria) Headquarters building, before which intersect with the via principalis, so East area was divided into equal areas.
Via decumana form the second segment on the West-East axis, separated from his group behind the headquarters building, to delineate the western area to turn into two equal parts.
In this way, the central part of the Fort-the best located and defended-it lies at the intersection of the main arteries of traffic, Here are some important buildings grouped on-site: Commander's headquarters (praetorium), with rooms housing the Treasury (Argentaria), the insignia of the Légion d'honneur and the white flag (Signum), Temple (Aedes), food stores (horrae). Bounded by the via praetoria and the via decumana, bordered and protected via sagularis, praetentura surfaces (East) and the retentura (West) were barăcilor-housing for soldiers from elite units and auxiliaries.
Given that a systematic organization of reconstitution of inner surface at Legion camp XIII Gemina, Apulum, You can't do it because of the havoc and radical transformations spent with the reconstruction of the premises, the value of the components of the wall are defense kept up today (South Gate, parts of the stone wall from the foundations of medieval buildings or those stored on the surface), the via principalis and part of principiei unveiled on the occasion of the restoration of the rights of access to the Austrian fortress, become invaluable, being in a singular testimony of historical local realities, now two millennia.
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